Sunday, July 3, 2011

Katak Bergigi?

katak puru mempunyai gigi yang terletak dibahagian atas dalam mulutnya dan mempunyai lidah yang kuat mampu melambung mangsanya terus ke dalam mulutnya.

 katak puru amat mementingkan kawasan masing-masing dan melindunginya dengan pelbagai cara termasuk mengeluarkan pelbagai bunyi, mengejar penceroboh, menyerang dengan melompat termasuk "bergusti".

katak puru betina amat tertarik dengan katak puru jantan yang mampu menyediakan makanan yang banyak dalam kawasannya. seekor katak puru betina mampu mengeluarkan 25 000 biji telur yang bercantum antara satu sama lain dan terapung-rapung di permukaan air. haiwan tersebut akan menjaga anak-anaknya yang dikenali sebagai berudu sehingga berusia 2 tahun. jika seekor berudu itu panjang bermakna ia bertukar menjadi katak puru yang cukup besar selepas metamorfosis bermakna ia mempunyai peluang hidup yang lama.

 Pendengaran adalah deria yang paling penting bagi haiwan ini kerana katak puru jantan berlumba-lumba "menyanyi" di kawasan kolam yang dijadikan tempat pembiakan. manakala katak puru betina akan menyahut "nyanyian" itu secara agresif tanpa henti.

Thursday, July 29, 2010

PBL-Group 1
Group members

• Nur Hidayah Binti Shaari (D20071029446)

• Muna Munirah Binti Haji Zakaria (D2007109562)

• Nor Fadhillah Binti Ramli ( D20071029484)

• Mohd Zulhusni Bin Zulkifli (D20071029461)

What is CNS?
Divided into 2 parts:-
  • Brain
  • Spinal cord

Function of spinal cord?
It has 2 main function:
-center for many reflex action
-means of communication between the brain and spinal nerves
-contains motor areas and sensory areas
It can be divided into:-
Forebrain- cerebrum and diencephalon
Midbrain- midbrain(parts of the brain stem)
Hindbrain- Pons,cerebellum and medulla oblongata
Function of brain:-
Function of
Center of intelect,memory, conciousness and language and also control sensation.

Develops into:-
  • Epithalamus
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Thalamus: main input center for sensory information going to the cerebrum and the main output center for motor information
  • Hypothalamus: regulate a widw variety of physiological processes : maintainance body temperature,feeding
Midbrain(part of brainstem)
Comprising the medula oblongata
  • Control and integrate reflex activities,eg: respiration and breathing
  • Receives sensory input from eyes,ears and muscles
  • Connects various parts of brain with one another
  • Contain respiratory and sleep center
What causes coma?
The reticular activating system(RAS) is a neutral pathway between the brain stem and thalamus.
The RAS received message from neuron in the spinal cord and from many other part of the nervous system and communicate with the cerebral cortex by complex neuron cicuit.
Component of the RAS help regulate concsiousness
When certain neuron of the RAS bombard the cerebral cortex with stimuli, the individual feels alert and can focus on specific talk. If the RAS is severely damaged, the indivedual may past into a deep permanent coma.


PBL-Group 1

Group members

• Nur Hidayah Binti Shaari (D20071029446)

• Muna Munirah Binti Haji Zakaria (D2007109562)

• Nor Fadhillah Binti Ramli ( D20071029484)

• Mohd Zulhusni Bin Zulkifli (D20071029461)

task 2

Learning issues
1.      Why does sedative types of medicine have shorter duration compared to others type of medicine?
Sedative types of medicine have shorter duration compared to others type of medicine which this drugs can  relieve anxiety. At high doses, many of these sedative drugs can cause unconsciousness and death. These drugs work in the brain by binding to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Neurotransmitters help to regulate the speed at which nerve impulses travel. When the amount of GABA increases, the speed of nerve transmissions decreases. These drugs depress the nervous system and cause relaxation of skeletal muscle.

2.      How would medicine affect the function of neurotransmitter?

Drugs may also alter synaptic transmission by directly affecting the postsynaptic receptors. Some drugs activate receptors, and others block them. While THC (the main psychoactive chemical in marijuana) and morphine activate their specific receptors, other drugs block specific receptors. Caffeine, the mild stimulant found in coffee and some soft drinks, exerts its effects by preventing a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator called adenosine from binding to its receptor. Normally, the binding of adenosine to its receptor causes sedation; it is a natural sleep-inducer. Instead of causing sedation, the blocking of the adenosine receptors with caffeine leads to an increase in activity and arousal levels.
The actions of some drugs are very complex. LSD, for example, acts on serotonin receptors. Serotonin, an important neurotransmitter in many brain regions, is involved in regulating a wide variety of functions including mood and basic survival functions such as sleeping and eating. Scientists continue to study how hallucinogens act, but apparently LSD activates some serotonin receptors (LSD acts as a receptor agonist) and blocks other serotonin receptors (LSD acts as a receptor antagonist).
A third way to affect synaptic transmission is to alter the removal of neurotransmitters from the synapse. Cocaine and amphetamines work this way (this is the second way in which amphetamines can alter neurotransmission).Both drugs block the dopamine transporter (reuptake pump) that removes dopamine from the synapse. The result is a fairly rapid rise of dopamine in the synapse, leading to feelings of euphoria and well-being. There are no drugs of abuse that block enzymatic destruction of neurotransmitters, although some antidepressants work by this mechanism.

3.What are the effect of different quantity of dose?

For drugs to exert their effects, a person must take them into the body and absorb them into the bloodstream. Some of these effects relate to the amount of the drug taken. For example, at low doses, no effect (or response) can be observed or measured. Once a certain amount of the drug enters the bloodstream, a response can then be measured. This point is known as the threshold.
At doses of the drug below the threshold amount, there is too little of the drug in the body to cause neurons to be activated. For example, there may not be enough heroin in the body to bind to opiate receptors in sufficient amounts to cause a change in neuronal activity. As the amount of drug taken increases, so does the response. A response cannot continue to increase infinitely, however. At some point, the response to a given amount of drug will reach a plateau, or a maximum level. To continue our example, when levels of opiates are very high in the blood, many opiate receptors have heroin bound to them and the neurons are already activated; no additional activation is possible. At higher doses, opiates are toxic and can cause a fatal response by halting respiration.

1.      What is the chemical, that contain in each type of medicine and the side effect?

a)      Ponstan
Ponstan belongs to the family of drugs known as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) medicine and commonly used for the treatment or prevention of the symptoms of inflammation and eases mild to moderate pain. Ponstan is also used to reduce fever and relieves the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatism), osteoarthritis, menstrual cramps or premenstrual pain and swelling. Ponstan works by blocking the action of a substance in the body known as cyclo-oxygenase.
Ponstan is more useful medicine for the treatment and relief of those patients who suffered to the problems of the symptoms of dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, Toothache, Pain following surgery and Muscle pain (myalgia).
Ponstan always takes under doctor’s guidance. The recommended doses of Ponstan will be different for different patients, according to the requirements of each patient; you continue to take it for as long as your doctor prescribes. If you can not tolerate the recommended dosage, your doctor can prescribe a dose that sufficient for you. Take Ponstan exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor. Ponstan is being manufactured by Elan Pharma and is available in 250mg capsules. Ponstan is also available in generic form known as Mefenamic acid Capsules. Ponstan may also be used for relieves other conditions that determined by your doctor or consultant.
Ponstan belongs to the family of drugs known as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) medicine and commonly used for the treatment or prevention of the symptoms of inflammation and eases mild to moderate pain. Ponstan is works by blocking the action of a substance in the body called cyclo-oxygenase. Cyclo-oxygenase is an enzyme involved in the production of chemicals in the body as prostaglandins. Prostaglandins cause pain, swelling and inflammation. By blocking the action of cyclo-oxygenase, Ponstan stops the production of these inflammatory prostaglandins, and therefore reduces inflammation and pain. Ponstan decreases fever by adjusting the body's thermostat in the brain. Ponstan blocks production and release of chemicals that cause pain and inflammation.
Possible side effects that occurs during the uses of Ponstan:
b)      Allergic reactions
c)      Headache
d)     Bladder pain
e)      Bloody or cloudy urine
f)       Problem with urination
g)      Burning or painful urination

b)      Voltaren
Voltaren (diclofenac sodium enteric-coated tablets) is a benzene-acetic acid derivative. Voltaren is available as delayed-release (enteric-coated) tablets of 75 mg (light pink) for oral administration. The inactive ingredients in Voltaren are including hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, iron oxide, lactose, magnesium stearate, methacrylic acid copolymer, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, propylene glycol, sodium hydroxide, sodium starch glycolate, talc, titanium dioxide.
c)      Diazepam
Diazepam is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines (ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens). Diazepam affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause anxiety.
Diazepam is used to treat anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, or muscle spasms. Diazepam is sometimes used with other medications to treat seizures.
Diazepam may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide
If overdose diazepam Overdose symptoms may include extreme drowsiness, confusion, limp or weak muscles, fainting, shallow breathing, or breathing that stops.

d)     Panadol Active Fast (Paracetamol)
Panadol capsules, tablets and soluble tablets and Panadol ActiFast tablets all contain the active ingredient paracetamol.
                 e) Propofol
Propofol is a drug that reduces anxiety and tension, and promotes relaxation and sleep or loss of consciousness. The primary effect of propofol is potentiation of GABA-A receptors.  Similar to barbiturates and benzodiazepines, propofol has been shown to produce rewarding and reinforcing effects in animals.  Sub-anesthetic and anesthetic doses of propofol have been shown to increase dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens (brain reward system) in rats. 
Propofol has a fast onset of action and crosses the blood-brain barrier very quickly. Its short duration of action is due to rapid distribution from central nervous system to other tissues.  Approximately 70% of the dose is excreted in the urine within 24 hours and 90% is excreted within 5 days of administration.
Propofol has a narrow window of safety.  Induction of anesthesia with propofol is associated with cessation of breathing in some adults and children.  Prolonged high dose infusions of propofol for sedation in adults and children have been associated with cessation of breathing, breakdown of heart muscle, and heart and kidney failure leading to death in some cases, referred as “Propofol Infusion Syndrome”.  Propofol abuse may also cause accumulation of fluid in the lungs, cardio-respiratory depression and death.  There is no antagonist or reversal medication for propofol toxicity

2.      Why the ponstan (200 mg) takes short duration to recover illness compare with panadol active fast?
Prostaglandins are produced by the body in response to injury and certain diseases. One of their actions is to sensitise nerve endings, so that when the injury is stimulated it causes pain (presumably to prevent us from causing further harm to the area).
As paracetamol reduces the production of these nerve sensitising prostaglandins it is thought it may increase our pain threshold, so that although the injury remains, we can feel it less. Like paracetamol, NSAIDs or Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in example Ponstan also inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, however its action starts by blocking its mother enzyme cyclooxygenase which accounts for both pain and inflammation. This is the main difference between paracetamol and Ponstan. That is the reason why it takes short duration time.

Action Plan
·         Surf internet
·         Reference books
·         Discussion

PBL-Group 1

Group members

• Nur Hidayah Binti Shaari (D20071029446)

• Muna Munirah Binti Haji Zakaria (D2007109562)

• Nor Fadhillah Binti Ramli ( D20071029484)

• Mohd Zulhusni Bin Zulkipli (D20071029461)

1. Why ion control the electrical signal in brain.

• Sodium

• Potasium

2. What the mechanisme involve that facilitated how two ion channels collaborate in the control of electrical signals in the brain.

The mechanism that involves is the action of the sodium potassium pump. Sylvia S. Mader(2006) says that sodium potassium pump is a membrane protein that actively transport Na+ out and K+ into the axon. The work of the pump the will maintain the enequal distribution of Na+ and k+ across the membrane. The mechanism goes like this,

- Cells pump extra potassium into their interiors and pump extra sodium out to the surrounding fluid.

- Electrical impulses in neurons are created when these ions are allowed to return to their original locations by passing rapidly through channels in nerve cells' outer membranes.

- Nerve cells possess wire-like extensions, called axons, which initiate these impulses and carry them from one cell to the next.

The electrical signal in the brain is actually been transmitted uses the information send by the nerve impulses occurs as the action potential occurs. The action potential is a rapid change in polarity across and axomembrane, Sylvia S. Mader (2006).

When an action potential occur, the gates of sodium channel open and  depolarization occurs. The when the gates of pottasium channel open. The repolarization occurs.

  •       What happen in CNS?

CNS is actually make up by the brain and the spinal cord. Here the sensory information is received and the motor control is initiated, sylvia S. Mader (2006)

  •  Why CNS only exist in vertebrate?

 As we know, The CNS is made up by brain and spinal cord. CNS is only exist in vetebrate as  both the spinal cord and the brain is surround by vetebrae. Usually the invetebrae are lack of brain. Thus the did not have CNS.

  •     What is the factor that causes epileptic seizures, pain and abnormal muscle movement.

Some people have mutations in potassium channels that decrease this control, causing excessive nerve firing manifested as epileptic seizures and uncontrolled muscle movements called myokymia and ataxia.

Sources: News

  •      How the the electrical impulses in neurons are created.

Nerve impulses are electrical as they run along the nerve. They then become chemical as they travel over the synaptic cleft. When a neuron receives a stimulus of sufficient strength the electrical current moves along the dendrite and axon to the neurotransmitter swellings. The movement of ions causes these electrical impulses.

Monday, January 4, 2010

The ASSURE Model

( model ini berkait dalam satu pusingan yang berterusan
analisis -guru terlebih daluhulu patut menganalisis pelajar, siapa pelajar? caranya mungkin dengan melihat tahap pencapaian sebelum ini dan guru juga boleh membuat ujian diagnostik.

- guru mestilah berpandangan positif kepada para pelajar,


kajian mengatakan

"guru yang negatif akan melahirkan pelajar yang berpencapaian rendah.


kerana pandangan negatif guru terhadap pencapaian dan keupayaan murid akan menyebabkan guru bertindak sambil lewa dalam pengajarannya..dia jugak mungkin akan mengeluarkan kata-kata yang merendah-rendahkan pelajar. ini akan menyebabkan motivasi dan penerimaan pelajar kepada guru akan menurun...

-sebaliknya jika guru ditakdirkan mengajar kepada kelas pelajar yang berpancapaian rendah, guru seharusnya positif bahawa adalah menjadi tugas guru untuk melaksanakan tugas dan tanggungjawabnya sebagai seorang pendidik. bagi saya guru yang baik bukanlah guru yang hanya dapat melahirkan seluruh pelajarnya mendapat "A", tapi guru yang baik ialah guru yang berhaja memanusiakan pelajarnya...berbalik kepada sikap guru kepada pelajar yang berpencapaian rendah mestilah mencari ikhtiar mendapatkan jalan terbaik untuk menyampaikan ilmu secara maksimum kepada para pelajar

pernah terdengar lecturer pedagogi saya berkata,

"semua pelajar mampu belajar/faham, jika guru menggunakan cara yang betul dan pada masa-masa yang tertentu--ini berkait rapat dengan masteri learning...

seterusnya apabila telah mengetahui siapa pelajar, pencapaian, keupayaan pelajar, fasa kedua ialah mereka bentuk (design)- bagaimana ingin mengajar
- cara apa yang guru boleh gunakan yang membolehkan para pelajarnya dapat menerima ilmu yang diberi semaksima mungkin mengikut tahap mereka...

fasa 3: develop

guru harus menyedia bahan mengajar yang telah dirancang, membina rancangan pengajaran juga termasuk dalam fasa ini.

fasa 4:evaluate

sebelum sesuatu proses dilaksanakan dalam bilik darjah, guru harus menilai semula adakah cara atau pendekatan yang ingin digunakan ini bersesuaian....

dan selepas pembelajaran berlaku, guru juga perlu menilai semula keberkesanan proses pembelajaran melalui kuiz, dan sebagainya...sebarang penambahbaikan perlu dibuat...
(From Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning by Heinich, Molenda, Russell, Smaldino, 1999)

Analyze learners
State objectives
Select instructional methods, media, and materials
Utilize media and materials
Require learner participation
Evaluate and revise

The ASSURE model is an ISD (Instructional Systems Design) process that was modified to be used by teachers in the regular classroom The ISD process is one in which teachers and trainers can use to design and develop the most appropriate learning environment for their students. You can use this process in writing your lesson plans and in improving teaching and learning.

The ASSURE model incorporates Robert Gagne's events of instruction to assure effective use of media in instruction.

Analyze learners

Before you can begin, you must know your target audience (your students). You need to write down the following information about your students:

General characteristics - grade, age, ethnic group, sex, mental, emotional, physical, or social problems, socioeconomic level, and so on.
Specific entry competencies - prior knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
Learning styles - verbal, logical, visual, musical, structured, and so on.

State objectives

Once you know your students, you can begin writing the objectives of your lesson. Objectives are the learning outcomes, that is, what will the student get out of the lesson?

The ABCD's of writing objectives are:

* Audience (who are your students?)
* Behavior to be demonstrated
* Conditions under which the behavior will be observed
* Degree to which the learned skills are to be mastered.

Example: Fifth grade social studies students (Audience) will be able to name at least 90% (Degree) of the state capitols (Behavior) when given a list of states (Condition).

Select instructional methods, media, and materials

Once you know your students and have a clear idea of what they should get out of the lesson, then you are ready to select the:

* Instructional method that you feel is most appropriate to meet the objectives for these particular students.
* Media that would be best suited to work with your instructional method, the objectives, and your students. Media could be text, still images, video, audio, and computer multimedia.
* Materials that provide your students with the help they need in mastering the objectives. Materials might be purchased and used as is or they might need some modifications. You can also design and create your own materials for the students to use. Materials would be specific software programs, music, videotapes, images, but would also be equipment, i.e., overhead projector, computer, printer, scanner, TV, laserdisk player, VCR, and so on.

Utilize media and materials

Now it's time to do your lesson and use the media and materials that you have selected. You should always preview the materials before using them in a class and you should also use the equipment in advance to be sure it works and you know how to use it. If you use electronic equipment, don't assume that everything will work. Be sure to have a plan B. Hardware and software are created by humans. Humans make mistakes and so software has mistakes in it. Hardware can malfunction. Don't get discouraged if technology lets you down. Make sure that your instructional materials are suitable and working the best you can and then use it in the classroom.

Require learner participation

Remember, students learn best when they are actively involved in the learning. The passive learner has more trouble learning whatever we try to pour into his/her brain. Whatever your teaching strategy, you can incorporate questions and answers, discussions, group work, hands-on activities, and other ways of getting students actively involved in the learning of the content. It is up to you, the teacher, to make sure that all your students have opportunities to participate in the learning activities in the unit plan. Avoid lecturing for an entire hour. Listen to your students and allow them to become aware of the content. Allow them to learn as opposed to trying to "teach" them.

Evaluate and revise

This last stage is often neglected but it is the most important one. Anyone can develop a lesson and deliver it, but really good teachers must reflect upon the lesson, the stated objectives, the instructional strategy, the instructional materials, and the assessment and determine if these elements of the lesson were effective or if one or more of them need to be changed the next time the lesson is done. Sometimes a lesson may seem like it would be great, at least on paper. But then when you actually teach the lesson with a specific set of students, you might discover there were several things that did not seem to work. Your expectations might be too high or too low. The materials used might not have been appropriate for the grade level or the material might not be very motivating. The instructional strategy might not have got students interesting in participation or the strategy might have been difficult for you to manage. The assessment you used might have shown that students didn't learn what you tested for. This might mean that you did not accurately test for the stated objectives, the method of assessment needs to be revised, or the lesson did not permit enough time for the students to master the objectives.

You are not a bad teacher if a lesson does not work. You are a bad teacher if you don't reflect upon your lessons and work on revising elements of the lesson until your students become successful learners.


Saturday, August 15, 2009

embriologi dalam Al-Quran

Embrologià satu bidang ilmu pengetahuan mengenai pembentukan dan perkembangan embryo sama ada manusia atau binatang.


  1. bukankah pernah datang kepada manusia waktu di masa, yang ketika itu belum merupakan suatu yang dapat disebut?
  2. sungguh, Kami telah menciptakan manusia dari setetes air mani yang bercampur yang Kami hendak mengujinya dengan perintah dan larangan, kerana itu kami jadikan ia mendengar dan melihat.


12. Dan sungguh Kami telah menciptakan manusia dari saripati yang berasal dari tanah

13. kemudian Kami jadikan air mani itu sesuatu yang melekat, yang disimpan dalam tempat yang kukuh (rahim)

14. kemudian, air mani itu Kami jadikan sesuatu yang melekat, lalu sesuatu yang melekat itu kami jadikan segumpal daging, dan segumpal daging itu kami jadikan tulang belulang, lalu tulang belulang itu Kami bungkus dengan daging. Kemudian, Kami menjadikannya makhluk yang berbentuk lain. Mahasuci Allah, Pencipta yang paling baik.

à ilmu tentang embryologi mula diketahui sainstis pada kurun ke -20, sedangkan al-Quran turun sebelum itu dan mengajarkan manusia ini semua….

Pengajaran : jelaslah bahawa Al-Quran itu adalah kalam Allah. Allah sengaja menjelaskan akan tanda-tanda kekuasaan-Nya melalui Al-Quran supaya jelaslah bagi manusia bahawasanya Al-Quran itu benar, Allah yang Esa itu benar…walaupun kita tak dapat melihat-Nya sekarang di dunia, namun Allah telah memberi tahu kita banyak benda melalui Al-Quran dan hadis baginda rasul yang mulia S.A.W yang membuktikan kewujudan-Nya.

Marilah kita hayati sambungan surah al-Mukminun

15. kemudian setelah itu kamu pasti mati

16. kemudian, sugguh kamu akan dibangkitkan dari kuburmu di hari kiamat.

à dalam Al-Quran Allah ada menceritakan tentang hari kiamat, dan fitrah manusia mungkin tak dapat nak percaya sesuatu yang tak pernah dia lihat dan alami, dan tak pernah juga orang lain alami…oleh itu Allah menceritakan dalam Al-Quran berselang seli antara kekuasaan-Nya dengan perkara gaib yang akan terjadi nanti, seperti kehidupan setelah mati..supaya manusia itu berfikir..jika Allah dapat menjadikan yang tidak ada kepada ada seperti manusia..mampu mencipta alam semesta..tidak mustahil Allah juga mampu membangkitkan kita kembali di hari kiamat… jadi marilah kita bermuhasabah: jika kita yakin akan hari kiamat (hari perhitungan amal) maka apakah persediaan kita untuk menghadapinya..?


2.dialah yang menciptakan kamu dari tanah, kemudian dia menetapkan ajal, dan batas waktu tertentu yang hanya diketahui oleh-Nya. Namun demikian kamu masih meraguinya.


4. Dia menciptakan manusia dengan air mani, ternyata dia menjadi pembantah yang nyata.


1. alif, Lam, Ra. Inilah kitab yang ayat-ayatnya disusun rapi kemudian dijelaskan secara terperinci, yang diturunkan dari sisi Allah yang Maha Bijaksana, Mahateliti.


52. Al-Quran ini adalah penjelasan yang sempurna bagi manusia, dan supaya mereka diberi peringatan dengannya, dan supaya mereka mengetahui bahawasanya Dia adalah Tuhan Yang Maha Esa dan agar orang-orang yang berakal mengambil pelajaran.


  1. PASAK: pengukuhan akidah menerusi penghayatan sains dalam Al-Quran: Dr. Arip Hj Kasmo
  2. Al-Quran